At early stages of evolution the live substance extended on lifeless spaces of the planet, taking everything places, potentially available to life, changing them and turning into habitats. And already in ancient times various vital forms and species of plants, animals, microorganisms, mushrooms occupied all planet. Live organic substance, it is possible to find and in ocean depths, and at tops of the highest mountains, and in eternal snow of Subpolar zone, and in hot water of sources of volcanic areas.
The organismal. The organism represents the complete monocelled or multicellular live system capable to independent existence. The metaphyte is formed by set of the fabrics and bodies specialized for performance of various functions.
The biosphere includes: the live substance formed by set of organisms; biogenous substance which is created in the course of activity of organisms (atmosphere gases, coal, oil, peat, limestones, etc.); inert substance which is formed without participation of live organisms; the bioinert substance representing joint result of activity of organisms and not biological processes (for example, soils).
Ecosystem - the concept very wide is also applicable as to natural (the tundra, the ocean), and to artificial complexes (aquarium). Therefore for designation of an elementary natural ecosystem ecologists also use the term "biogeocenosis".
Maintenance of circulation of substances in a sitstema requires existence of a stock of inorganic molecules in an usvoyaemy form and three functionally various groups of organisms: producers, konsument and redutsent.
Though borders of the biosphere are quite narrow, live organisms in their limits are distributed very unevenly. At big height and in depths of the hydrosphere and a lithosphere organisms meet rather seldom. Life is concentrated mainly on Earth surface, in the soil and in a near-surface layer of the ocean. Lump of live organisms is estimated in 2,43kh1012t. Biomass of the organisms living on the land for 99,2% is presented by green plants and 0,8% - animals and microorganisms. On the contrary, at the ocean 6,3%, and on a share of animals and microorganisms - 93,7% of all biomass fall to the share of plants. Life is concentrated mainly on the land. Total biomass of the ocean makes only 0,0310 12 t, or 0,13% of biomass of all beings living on Earth.
On modern representations, development of a lifeless geosphere, i.e. cover, educated. substance of Earth, occurred at early stages of existence of our planet, billions years ago. Changes of image of Earth were connected with the geological processes happening in crust on a surface and in deep layers of the planet and found manifestation in eruptions of volcanoes, earthquakes, crust motions, mountain building. Such processes happen and now on lifeless planets of solar system and their satellites - Mars, Venus, the Moon.
Biogeotsenotichesky. A biogeocenosis - community, set of organisms of different types and various complexity of the organization with all factors of the concrete environment of their dwelling - components of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and a lithosphere.